EFFECT

Description

Capacity

A+RELATIONSHIP+B COGNITION

I have models in my mind of the dominance relationships between other individuals in the group. As there is a stable linear hierarchy in the group, the relationships are largely invariant, so the binding between the imaged individuals and their relationship with each other is strong.


Linear Social Cognition

A-RELATIONSHIP-B COGNITION

I have models in my mind about the relationships between other individuals in the group. The reverse-dominance cultural environment means that my relationships are contingent and variable, so the binding of the relationship to the imaged individuals is weak.


Social Cognition

A-RELATIONSHIP-B GRAMMAR

A-Relationship-B Grammar: I am expressing my A-Relationship-B cognition verbally, so I need a simple syntactic system with which to do this.


Protolanguage 2

A-RELATIONSHIP-B-BY-C COGNITION

By tagging a received A-Relationship-B model with its source, I can measure it against my existing knowledge to identify C's stance towards A and B. This enhances my knowledge of the group social relationships, and allows me to extract useful empirical data from an utterance that is, essentially, opinion.


Identifying Opinion

A-RELATIONSHIP-B-BY-C GRAMMAR

I am expressing my A-Relationship-B-by-C cognition verbally, so I need a more complex syntactic system with which to do this.


Awareness of Own Reputation

ABSENT REFERENCE

I am referring to items and events which are within my experience but not within yours. You have to accept their reality to me to be able to interpret my utterance.


Awareness of Absence

ABSTRACTION

I have to be able to see another individual as separate from my relationships with that other, so that I can model the relationship between that other and third parties.


Social Cognition

AWARENESS OF SELF

I am a third party in the modelling of others, so A-Relationship-B constructs offered to me may include me as A or B. To incorporate these offered constructs I have to be able to model myself as a third party.


Awareness of Self

AWARENESS OF SELFNESS

By modelling myself as a third party, I am able to see my self from an external perspective. This carries with it all the concomitant advantages and disadvantages of Machiavellian Intelligence, but applied reflexively.


Egalitarian Awareness

COMPLEX LANGUAGE 1

Language is, even today, a developing system. Complex Language 1 represents the end of the story being told here, but it should not be seen as a complete, terminal state for language.


Complex Language 1

DIFFERENTIATION

The second of the four features of language. The "atoms" of cognition can have different roles in the construction of thoughts. In the minimal case of language (as conceived here), "words" can represent entities or relationships between entities.


Joint Attention & Deixis

DISPASSIONATE SELF

By modelling myself as a third party, I can treat my self as I treat other third parties.


Egalitarian Awareness

FIRST PERSON

Probably the last of the language "voices" to emerge. Allows me to represent my self in utterances made to others.


Projection of Self

GRAMMATICAL HIERARCHY

The third of the four features of language. The "atoms" of cognition can be combined to make composite units which behave in many ways like "atoms".


Identifying Opinion

GRAMMATICALIZATION

The process of sharing the simplest grammatical utterances (containing segmentation and differentiation, but not hierarchy or recursion) creates a condition where the meaning in the shared utterance has to be negotiated between sender and receiver. This negotiation allows the adoption of new “words”, and new types of words, by the receiver. It also allows the adoption of new grammatical forms in which the new types of words are useful.


Negotiation to Meaning

LEXIS

"Words" represent a relationship between phonology and meaning. In this they differ from "atoms" of cognition, which have no phonology.


Semanticity

MODALITY

Utterances can have conditionality (they are true if…); they can have perspective (they are true to some individuals and not others); they can have fictionality (they are true only within a non-existent scenario). If one type of modality is possible for a species, all types are possible.


Awareness of Own Reputation

NESTED FUNCTIONALITY

Being able to nest a function inside another function is a necessary precursor to recursion. Arithmetic is the process of nesting quantities inside another quantity (e.g. 1+2=3), and therefore has nested functionality. This capacity has now been demonstrated in rhesus macaques.


Simple Arithmetic

PHYSICAL CULTURE

A species which is able to transmit physical survival skills between individuals by teaching and learning has a physical culture. The transmission of termite fishing between female chimpanzees and their offspring is an example of this.


Teaching and Learning of Skills

QUALIFIER-A GRAMMAR

Instead of representing my relationship with A, I can express it as an attribute of A (e.g. "hates Bagginses" becomes "nasty Bagginses").


Protolanguage 1

RECURSION (MERGE)

The fourth of the four features of language. Hierarchy can occur at multiple levels: composite units can contain composite units. The Hauser-Chomsky-Fitch (2002) proposal sees recursion as a language-related evolutionary event, but this proposal sees it as emergent from hierarchy and attribution of received utterances, with a genetic explanation outside of language.


Recursive Social Cognition

RELATIONSHIP+A COGNITION

I have models in my mind of my relationships with other individuals in the group. As the models represent my actual relationships, the binding between the imaged individual and my relationship with them is strong.


Machiavellian Intelligence

RELATIONSHIP-A COGNITION

I have models in my mind of my relationships with other individuals in the group. The reverse-dominance cultural environment means that my relationships are contingent and variable, so the binding between the imaged individual and my relationship to them is weak.


Joint Ventures

RELATIONSHIP-A GRAMMAR

I am expressing my Relationship-A cognition verbally, so I need a segmented and differentiated system with which to do this.


Protolanguage 1

SECOND PERSON

Probably the second of the language "voices" to emerge. Allows me to represent the receiver as a special class of "they". This permits referential dialogue, and "talking to" as an enhancement to "talking about".


Recognition of Receiver

SEGMENTATION

The first of the four features of language. Utterances are composed of "atoms" of cognition, they are not monolithic correspondences between thought and signal.


Joint Attention and Deixis

SEMIOTICS

Joint attention allows the emergence of shared representation. This, in turn, requires a shared convention of representation.


Joint Attention and Deixis

SOCIAL CULTURE

A species which is able to transmit social conventions between individuals has a social culture. The social conventions do not directly enhance individual fitness, but they create social inclusion for the individual, which indirectly enhances their fitness. Burial practices provide an example of this.


Affective Teaching and Learning

TEMPORALITY OF FUTURE

Being able to reference events which are in the past, coupled with modality, allows reference to events which are yet to happen. All that is needed is a social convention to identify future events.


Awareness of Future Modality

TEMPORALITY OF PAST

Being able to refer to events which are not present means being able to refer to events which are not current. All that is needed is a social convention of how to differentiate current non-present events from non-current non-present events.


Awareness of Non-Current Events

THIRD PERSON

Probably the first of the language "voices" to emerge. Allows me to represent others as entities, initially in my cognition and later in my signalling.


Social Cognition

Routes to Language


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