Basic Word Grammar in Pravic

The grammar of Pravic is simple. It is based around word roots which have noun meanings, but which can also have verb, adjective, adverb, and other meanings. So Pon means a real thing and, as a verb root, to have existence. The suffix indicates which word-type the root represents. No suffix or -i indicate a noun; -a, -e or -o indicate a verb.


The noun root can also become an adjective with a suffix of -y, and an adverb with a suffix of -u. So Pony means real (adjective), and Ponu means in a real way (adverb).

Noun Prefixes and Suffixes

In Pravic, as in English, nouns can be singular or plural and definite or indefinite. However, in English the definite and indefinite are indicated by word articles (a and the), in Pravic they are indicated by prefixes to the noun. The four forms are:

Verb Suffixes

Suffixes on verbs indicate tense, as follows:

General Prefixes

Word meanings can be changed using a range of prefixes, which apply to all word types. They always occur in the same order: a negator prefix, then adpositional prefixes, then number prefixes, then the foreign word marker, then the root.

Negators

ma-, mi- and mo- can be added to any word type. mi- is the strongest negator (opposite of x), ma- is the weakest (not x), mo- is in the middle (unlike x).

Adpositions

Pravic has a range of adpositional prefixes. A list of them is given here.

Numbers

Counted things can have the number as a separate adjectival, or prefixed onto the root; e.g. the two sides can be aneLemi or aLemi Nesy (note that aLem Nesy means the second side). Numbers of more than two digits tend to be adjectival; e.g. the 248 trees is usually aHolumi Nenovaty, not anenovaHolumi. The numbers are given here.

Foreign Word Marker

Like any language, Pravic borrows terms from other languages. However, as these terms may well contain meanings which do not fit with the cultural mappings of Pravic, foreign words are marked with a prefix go, or gog if the foreign word begins with a vowel. So the Terran word acre (a measure of area) would be rendered as gogAkar. The insult propertarian is rendered as gogArriks, where aeruis is the A-Io word for owner.


Words can be formed using this simple map:

Pronominal Nouns

While pronouns are not a formal part of Pravic, there is a set of nouns which act in a pronominal role. These are:


KSotrekv is deliberately complex, both phonologically and in construction, to make it difficult for children to use. It is a mark of social self-effacement to pronounce the word correctly but slowly, as if it is not a normal part of your vocabulary. When referring to yourself, it is always KSotrekv (a speaker). When referring to others as speakers it is usually aKSotrevok (the one who speaks) or aKSotrekv (the previous speaker).


Asking Questions

Questions have the same form as statements, but are spoken with a rising inflection at the end. They also often use the modal form of the verb.